Nursing Interventions for Nausea and Vomiting

  1. Position the patient: To prevent aspiration
    • Conscious: semi fowler’s
    • Unconscious: lateral
  2. Provide good oral care measures
  3. Suction mouth as needed if the client is unable to expel vomitus.
  4. Relieve sensation of nausea by providing any of the following:
    • Ice chips
    • Hot tea with lemon
    • Hot ginger ale
    • Dry toast or crackers
    • Cold cola beverage
  5. Replace fluid-electrolyte loss (oral or intravenous fluid infusion)
  6. Observe for potential complications as follows:
    • Dehydration
      • Thirst (first sign)
      • Dry mouth and mucus membrane
      • Warm, flushed dry skin
      • Fever, tachycardia, low BP
      • Weight loss
      • Sunken eyeballs
      • Oliguria
      • Dark, concentrated urine
      • High specific gravity of urine
      • Poor skin turgor
      • Altered LOC (level of consciousness)
      • Elevated BUN, serum creatinine
      • Elevated hematocrit
    • Acid-base balance
      • Initially, metabolic alkalosis due to excessive loss of gastric acids
      • If vomiting is incessant/prolonged, metabolic acidosis occurs due to excessive loss of bicarbonate from duodenum.
    • Hypokalemia
      • Initial manifestation in muscle weakness in the legs or leg cramps
      • Provide postssium-rich foods such as banana, raw tomato, raw carrot, baked potatoes, citrus fruits and dried fruits.
  7. Administer antiemetic as ordered by the physician
    • Plasil (Metochlopramide)
    • Tigan (Trimethobenzamide)
    • Phenergan (Promethazine)
    • Compazine (Prochlorperazine maleate)

More Nursing Interventions coming up.

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